• Indo-European Languages
• Proto-Indo-European Myths
• Festivals, Food and Farming
• Plow Songs
• Early English Text Society
• Book References
A number of songs and traditions connected to plowing are grouped together here, so that you can use
them for the beginning of your plowing or planting season. Plowing is the
American spelling of the word, while ploughing is the British spelling,
with the same pronunciation. I use both forms interchangeably in this article.
Plowing was done in England usually in March as well as in the Fall, though of
course it depends on the crop and the weather.
Ploughmen and oxen from the Luttrell Psalter
March was probably the time of year for the rituals of Blessing the Seed and Charming the Plough in Anglo-Saxon
Pagan times. The information about the Aecerbôt or Ritual to Bless the Land was on this page but it has been moved and is going to be rewritten. This page just has plow songs and plow plays now. Charming the plow was general in Europe and the custom is first mentioned in England in a Christian prohibition against “ledying of the plow abowten” (leading the plow about) given in the book Dives and Pauper, EETS OS 275, p. 157, composed in English in 1405-1410. This custom continued into the 1800’s in one form or another in many areas and was probably traditionally done in January because of the way work was organized in England. More recently Plough Plays were presented in the 1700 and 1800’s. Traditional plow whistles are also given, which people use while working in the fields. This is my gift.
The oldest Plow Song that I know of in
English is the lovely “Speed the Plough” which is for two voices and is rather
sophisticated. I doubt they sang this in the fields. A more recent and simpler
song is “We are Jolly Good Fellows that Follow the Plough” (or “The Ploughboy”),
of which there are several versions. Another folk song about ploughing is the “Ox
Plough Song.” [fuggle26]
1. Speed the Plough
This song is said to date from the
1500’s but it seems later according to the language. The words and music for two
voices are given in Musica Britannica, Volume 4, Medieval Carols, ed.
by John Stevens, and published by Stainer and Bell in Cambridge or London, 1952,
pp. 112-113. This is song 12A, which they call “The mirth of all this lond.” The original source is image of the music on Arch Selden B 26 (manuscript) folio 19 recto, at the Bodleian. There seem to be a number of problems with the Stevens' transcription so I have rejiggered it. I believe it's the last four lines of each verse that are repeated as a chorus where all can join in.
The mirth of all this londë,
The word “ering” in the chorus means “plowing” and is cognate with the word “aryan.” There is a heathen adaptation of the lyrics by Thorbert Linleah by the way. Unfortunately, I don’t know of any performance of this song.
mak’th the good husbondë,
with ering of his plough,
Y-blessed be Christës sondë
that hath us sent in hondë
mirth and joy enow.
The plough goeth many a gate,
Both early and eke late,
In winter in the clay.
About barley and wheat
That maketh man to sweat;
God speed the plough all day.
Brown, Morel and Gore
Drawen the plough full sore
All in the morning.
Rewardë him therefore
With a sheaf or more
All in the evening.
When men begin to sow,
Full well their corn they know,
In the month of May.
However Janyver blow,
Whether high or low,
God speed the plough alway.
When men beginneth to weed
The thistle from the seed,
In summer when they may.
God let him well to speed,
And long, good life to lead,
All that for ploughmen pray.
2. Speed the Plow (reel)
A very bouncy violin tune in the
form of a reel is called Speed the Plow and is very popular for dancing, both
Morris dancing and folk dancing. Speed the Plough with the Apple Tree Morris Dancers shows one form of dance on
YouTube and there are many others. This doesn’t have any words as far as I know
but I included it because of the title and because the music is so cheerful. Here is a link to one version of the music notation for
Speed the Plow (reel)
3. We are Three Jolly Fellows that Follow the Plough
This song is known in two main versions with never the same name twice
apparently. In this song the leader of the team is giving the other ploughmen a
hard time, but it is all in good fun. The song is sometimes called “The
Ploughboy” although the same title is used for another song about joining the
army which is not what I had in mind. One version of The Ploughboy is now on the joe offer site with both the words and music. The song is also published in the English Dance and
Song, (journal), Vol 30, No. 1, Spring 1968, p. 16. This version is
performed by Kate Rusby and you can listen to her singing the Jolly Ploughboys on YouTube.
Another version, called “Three Jolly Fellows” was recorded as early as 1742,
and is said to have been sung by the Ploughboys who went about the neighborhood
on Plough Day in January. This version of the song has words that I like better
and they were transcribed by Garry Gillard from the singing of the Watersons.
The lyrics for the Ploughboy, as they call it, are published at the University of Hamburg
site which has lots of lyrics and information about the sources of the songs but
no music. The last line of each verse is sometimes given as “’Cause we’re three
jolly fellows that follow the plough”, hence the alternative title.
’Twas early one morning at the break of the day,
There is another recording of The Ploughboy by Bob Hart on youtube, but I couldn't find one of the lyrics as they are given here.
The young cocks were
crowing; the farmer did say,
Rise up me good fellows and work with good
For your horses need somewhat their bellies to fill.
Chorus (after each verse):
It’s oorily oorily oorily ay
have you been doing this long summer’s day?
Ye ain’t ploughed an acre, I’ll
swear and I’ll vow.
Oh, you’re damned idle fellows as follows the plough.
At four in the morning we rise from our bed,
Go down to the pump and we
douse in our head.
We curry our horses and take ’em in tow,
damned clever fellows as follows the plough.
At six in the morning it’s breakfast time now,
And welcome it is, I can
With eggs and with bread and a piece of old sow,
we’re damned hungry fellows as follows the plough.
We harness our horses, take them to the field,
And a plentiful harvest in
time it will yield.
We plough all our furrows all in a straight row,
’Cause we’re damned clever fellows as follows the plough.
And come eventide then our work it shall end;
It’s round to the alehouse
to toast an old friend.
Put a gallon of pint pots all in a straight row,
’Cause we’re damned thirsty fellows as follows the plough.
4. Plough Plays
Plough Plays were performed in January,
and most of the ones recorded in England were meant for entertainment, but the
oldest ones, like the Goathland Plow Stots are thought to go back to a Pagan
tradition in which Charming the Plough was a necessary condition for a good
In later times, Twelve Night was the period of celebration between the Winter
Solstice and the New Year until the Reformation. Farm work traditionally resumed
in England on the first Monday after Twelfth Night (January 6th), which was the
end of the Christmas season. This was the time of year when plowing began for
the spring grains. This isn’t really the most appropriate time to plow in
England, where the winter rains are likely to make the ground too wet, or even
worse, it may be frozen. Still this was the custom, perhaps based on Roman books
on agriculture (Columella, 1st century; Palladius, 4th) which were more appropriate to the conditions in Italy. At this
time of year, the plow men go visiting from house to house and ask for handsel
(offerings). Asking for offerings and giving offerings are thought to bring good
luck and a better harvest to the whole community. In some places the visits
include the performance of plough plays.
Plough Plays have the standard form of English folk plays in which about six
actors in costume show up at the door and introduce themselves. The Clayworth,
Nottinghamshire plough play is published in The Mummers’ Play, by R. J.
E. Tiddy, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1923, p. 240-247, and in The English
Mummers Play by Alex Helm, Folklore Society, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk,
1980, p. 97-100. Most of the music for the songs is given in the second of these
two books. A great deal of information about Folk Plays is available on the net
at the website folkplay.info but it is difficult to navigate this
site. The Clayworth, Nottinghamshire Plough Play is given
completely on this site.
Among the speaking parts in this play is the Ploughboy, or Farmer’s Boy, who
originally wore a smock, but more recently would appear in work clothes of
corduroy, with a very big handkerchief around his neck, boots and a cloth slouch
hat. The Ploughboy introduces himself with the words:
In comes I, the farmer’s man
There is then a mock fight between two of the actors, or as one text puts it,
“They fights and spars round like for a bit and then old Eezum Squeezum falls
down dead...” A doctor is called who revives the “dead” actor with magic and
nonsense, and then the actors do a Morris dance (if they can dance) or sing a
song (if they can sing) or they just recite the verses, after which they go on
to the next house. The relatively recent plough play recorded at Clayworth,
Nottinghamshire in 1923 has a version of the traditional song requesting
offerings. This song has the same tune, more or less, as some of the wassail songs.
I’ve come here to plough the land,
turn it upside down.
I go straight from end to end
I scarcely a boaks bend [a boaks
is part of a plough.]
And to my horses, I attend
As they go marching to
We are not the London Actors
You can see a performance of this type of play such as the Branston Plough Play on YouTube where it is performed by the Bedford Morris
Men on Plough Monday at the Cricketers Public House. This performance concludes
with a version of the final song as given above.
That act upon the stage.
We are the
country plough lads
That ploughs for little wage.
Good master and good mistress,
As you sit round the fire,
of us poor plough lads
That plough through mud and mire.
The mire is so very deep,
We travel far and near.
We thank you for a
And a pitcher of your best beer!
You see our tale is ended,
You see our fool is gone. [Exit Fool]
We’ll make it our business
To follow him along.
And we thank you for civility
And for what you gave us here:
wish you all good night
And another Happy New Year.
5. Ox Plough Song
Another nice plow song is called the
Ox Plough Song or Oxen Ploughing, and is
published on Digital Tradition. There are two versions of this song with the
same tune but with different words. The version with the tune is available as
the Oxen Ploughing song and it starts out “Prithee lend
your jocund voices...” These are very mannered words, but a better,
less-mannered set of words is available at the same site as the Ox-Plough Song with words that begin “Come all you
sweet charmers and give me a choice....” and these words can be sung to the same
tune. In this song, the plowman addresses his oxen as Pretty, Sparkle, Berry,
Goodluck, Speedwell, and Cherry which is funny because we seem to know the names
of everyone’s cows and horses in the 18th century, but not the names of the
humans. There is a very charming performance of the Ox-Plough Song sung by a father and his little daughter on YouTube.
6. Plough Whistles
Plough Whistles are used when people
are plowing and all of the examples are from Celtic sources, usually Gaelic.
According to P. W. Joyce, writing in 1906 “while ploughmen were at their work,
they whistled a peculiar wild, slow and sad strain, which had as powerful an
effect in soothing the horses at their hard work as the milking-songs had on the
cows” (from A Smaller Social History of Ancient Ireland). Plow whistles
do not have words, since they were actually whistled, but they could be played
on a recorder or tin whistle if you can’t whistle all that well. Of course
ploughmen could not do that because their hands were full. The best collection
of plough whistles is in Petrie’s Ancient Music of Ireland, first
published in 1855, but reprinted as Petrie’s Complete Irish Music, 1,582
Traditional Tunes [mostly without words], edited by Charles Villiers, Dover,
Stanford, 2003. Petrie gives several pages of plough whistles and the most
popular one is No. 1051, collected from Queen’s County or King’s County. There
are also some plow whistles published by Edward Bunting in Ancient Music of
Ireland in 1840. Both of these sources are available on the net at the IMSLP
site with the Petrie plough whistles given on p. 267. It’s a pdf, so it might take a couple of minutes to download. Scroll down, it’s the next to the last page in this file.
Rituals and songs for Charming the Plough have counterparts all across Europe and go back to Pagan times. These traditions are always important to people who are dependent on agriculture for their lives and livelihood.
This page used to be at pierce.yolasite.com/plowsongs but Yola was hacked in November 2011 and they have never been able to repair the damage to their servers so the page has been migrated here.
© 2007, last updated 1/15/2016, at piereligion.org/plowsongs.html